## I. THE BIG BANG AND 3D SPACE

The Big Bang theory is rooted in the red shift phenomenon. To explain red shift, consider the dispersion of light through a prism. The reason why white light separates into red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet bands of lights is because each color in the visible spectrum has a different wavelength, with violet being the shortest and red being the longest. A red shift of an illuminated object occurs when its observed wavelength is shifted towards the red side of the visible spectrum from its actual wavelength, making it appear longer and, thus, redder. In other words, the lit object is moving away from the observer.

Most objects that we see in space have a red shift. The further away the object is, the greater the red shift. The red shift phenomenon suggests that the Universe is expanding. We know that our Universe is expanding because distant stars and galaxies show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase of their distance from Earth. Therefore everything must have been closer together in the past. If we continue to extrapolate the phenomenon of redshift backwards in time, then our Universe must have begun from a single point.

Before the Universe, there was neither space nor time. The Universe is space and time. That is, 3D space plus time equals our Universe. In mathematics, we study N dimensional space. With N being a variable that can represent any number, studying our 4D Universe is rather trivial. We understand that if 3D space is our current space, then 2D space is a plane, and 1D space is a line. So, then what is 0-D space? A point. The 0-D space is considered the origin of the X, Y, Z coordinate system. In the absolute first moment of the Universe, when it existed only as an infinitely small point in space, it was in the zeroth-dimension or 0-D space.

We live in a closed, infinite, three dimensional space. The idea of a closed space can be visualized by choosing a point (original point) on the earth and then having two airplanes from this point leave trails in opposing directions. When they crash head-on into each other on the other side of the planet connecting the two trails, we can say that this combined trail is closed (or the 1D space is closed). A ring is a closed, finite, one dimensional space. If we incorporate the idea of infinity, then the point where the two planes collide is the infinity point in relation to the original point. An axis, positive or negative, that begins from the origin has only one infinity point. If we change the first dimension to the second dimension in this case, the ring becomes the surface of the earth. The original and the infinity points in 2D space are same as the ones in 1D space. We can comprehend the same for 3D space, but we cannot visualize it due to the limitation of our existing in 3D space. This limitation only allows us to comprehend an open 3D space—the most we can fully grasp is a closed, finite, 2D space. So, to study a closed 3-or-higher dimensional space, it is necessary to represent it with a simpler, closed, finite, 2D space to see the whole picture.

When the Big Bang occurred out of the zeroth- dimension, three dimensional space was produced. How did this occur?  According to the Big Bang theory, there was no time and no space before the Universe came into existence. There was only the zeroth dimension–a single point of pure energy.0 An explosion caused the pure energy to expand; it was larger in second two than it was in second one. Therefore, fourth dimensional time progresses as the Universe expands.  In turn, the expansion caused the pure energy to cool. Pure energy has no 3D value so it is not erroneous to consider a point as pure energy. Then this energy began to change into matter. It is not magic. A story is hidden within the word “change” because nothing appears without a logical process. This transformational process exists.  This process must follow a law of nature. What is the law of nature in this case?