In order to aid the explanation of the process of transforming energy into matter it is best to first review a couple of analogous models which incorporates a law of nature. Consider these examples:

1.     How does the liquid state of a rain drop emerge from the gaseous state of air? The ability of air to absorb water is relative humidity (RH). The lower the RH, the greater its ability to absorb water. When the RH is 0%, air has no water molecules and its ability to absorb water is at its greatest. Any water around will be absorbed very quickly. When RH of the air is 100%, it is saturated. Saturated air cannot absorb any more water. Before air is saturated, water molecules exist only in their gaseous state. At this time, the water is part of the air; water and air are of the same body. If the temperature of the saturated air drops, raising the RH to 100%, excess water will be expelled from the air to form a visible cloud or fog that is separate from the air. As the mist thickens, rain droplets will develop and precipitate into rivers and streams. If the RH of the air drops again due to a temperature rise, the air will absorb the mist and even water on the ground. This example illustrates two processes; one in which air and water are one and the same (RH between 0% and 100%), and one in which water is separated from the air (water content in excess of 100%).

2.     How does salt, which is in a solid state, appear in water, which is in a liquid state? If salt is introduced to a bowl of pure distilled water, the salt content of the solution will increase. Once the water is saturated, it cannot absorb any more salt and no matter how much salt is added thereafter, its salinity will remain the same. If you pour the saturated salt water solution into a pot (leaving behind the crystals) and then heat up the pot, the solution’s saturation point will drop and it will be able to absorb more salt as it is added. The saturation point will shift based on temperature. If you then pour the hot saturated salt water solution into a new empty bowl and allow it to cool, you will see salt crystals appearing in the bowl. The cooler the water becomes, the more crystals will form. At this point, the salt water solution is still saturated because the salt content in the solution exceeds its saturation point capacity. This is the way salt crystals are produced. However, if the solution is not saturated it will absorb salt.

From the past two examples, we can see that things strive to keep their balance and remain saturated. Saturation is naturally an ideal condition. Let’s examine a final example: the refrigerant cycle in a closed refrigeration system.

3.     A compressor converts a low-temperature, low-pressure refrigerant gas into a high-pressure, high-temperature gas. In the high-pressure side of the system, air or water is used to absorb heat from the refrigerant. When the temperature of the refrigerant drops to its high-pressure saturation point, the refrigerant becomes saturated and liquid begins to form in the gas. As heat continues to be carried away, the liquid content in this part of the system will increase. During this phase, the temperature remains fixed and the refrigerant remains in its saturation point. The heat that is given off by the refrigerant during this process is called the latent heat. Once all the gas becomes liquid, the temperature of the refrigerant will begin to drop again. Then this high-pressure, ambient-temperature liquid is impelled into the low-pressure side of the system. In the low-pressure side, the temperature of the refrigerant’s saturation point is much lower than the surroundings that are to be cooled. The saturated liquid refrigerant will then absorb latent heat from the surroundings which will turn the refrigerant into a gas at a fixed temperature. When it becomes entirely gas, it will be compressed once again in the compressor.

Each of the preceding examples demonstrates physical reactions.


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